Cats On Treadmills (And The Plasticity Of Biological Motility Perception)


Cats on a treadmill. From Treadmill Kittens.


It's been an eventful week. The passing of the neat author too neurologist, Oliver Sacks. Oh, too Wes Craven merely died too...

I'm non blogging close whatsoever of these events. Many many others accept already written close them (see selected reading listing below). And has been feeling tapped out lately.

Hence the cats on treadmills. They're hither to innovate a novel written report which demonstrated that early on visual experience is non necessary for the perception of biological motion (Bottari et al., 2015). Biological motility perception involves the powerfulness to empathise too visually rail the crusade of a living being. This phenomenon is oftentimes studied using betoken low-cal displays, every bit shown below inward a demo from the BioMotion Lab. You should actually cheque out their flash animation that allows yous to sentiment human, feline, too dove walkers moving from correct to left, scrambled too unscrambled, masked too unmasked, inverted too correct side up.






Biological Motion Perception Is Spared After Early Visual Deprivation

People born alongside dense, bilateral cataracts that are surgically removed at a after appointment exhibit deficits inward higher visual processing, including the perception of global motion, global form, faces, too illusory contours. Proper neural evolution during the critical, or sensitive menstruum early on inward life is subject on experience, inward this representative visual input. However, it seems that the perception of biological motility (BM) does non require early on visual experience (Bottari et al., 2015).

Participants inward the written report were 12 individuals alongside congenital cataracts that were removed at a hateful historic menstruum of 7.8 years (range four months to sixteen yrs). Age at testing was 17.8 years (range 10-35 yrs). The written report assessed their biological motility thresholds (extracting BM from noise) too recorded their EEG to betoken low-cal displays of a walking homo too to scrambled versions of the walking homo (see demo).





Behavioral functioning on the BM threshold chore didn't differ much betwixt the congenital cataract (cc) too matched command (mc) groups (i.e., at that spot was a lot of overlap betwixt the filled diamonds too the opened upwards triangles below).

Modified from Fig. 1 (Bottari et al., 2015).


The event-related potentials (ERPs) averaged to presentations of the walking homo vs. scrambled homo showed the same designing inward cc too mc groups every bit well: larger to walking homo (BM) than scrambled homo (SBM).

Modified from Fig. 1 (Bottari et al., 2015).


The N1 factor (the peak at close 0.25 s post-stimulus) seems a picayune smaller inward cc but that wasn't significant. On the other hand, the before P1 was significantly reduced inward the cc group. Interestingly, the duration of visual deprivation, sum of visual experience, too post-surgical visual acuity did not correlate alongside the size of the N1.

The authors utter over 3 possible explanations for these results:
(1) The neural circuitries associated alongside the processing of BM tin specialize inward slowly childhood or adulthood. That is, every bit presently every bit visual input becomes available, initiates the functional maturation of the BM system. Alternatively the neural systems for BM powerfulness mature independently of vision. (2) Either they are shaped cross-modally or (3) they mature independent of experience.

They ultimately favor the 3rd explanation, that "the neural systems for BM specialize independently of visual experience." They also betoken out that the ERPs to faces vs. scrambled faces inward the cc grouping create non exhibit the characteristic deviation betwixt these stimulus types. What's hence particular close biological motion, then? Here the authors moving ridge their hands too arms a bit:
We tin solely speculate why these dissimilar developmental trajectories for faces too BM emerge: BM is characteristic for whatsoever type of living beingness too the major properties are shared across species. ... By contrast, faces are highly specific for a species too biases for the processing of faces from our ain ethnicity too historic menstruum accept been shown.

It's to a greater extent than of import to run into if a behave is running towards yous than it is to recognize faces, every bit anyone alongside congenital prosopagnosia ("face blindness") powerfulness say you...


Footnote

1 Troje & Westhoff (2006):
"The 3rd sequence showed a walking cat. The information are based on a high-speed (200 fps) video sequence showing a truthful cat walking on a treadmill. Fourteen characteristic points were manually sampled from unmarried frames. As alongside the dove sequence, information were approximated alongside a third-order Fourier serial to obtain a generic walking cycle."


Reference

Bottari, D., Troje, N., Ley, P., Hense, M., Kekunnaya, R., & Röder, B. (2015). The neural evolution of the biological motility processing organization does non rely on early on visual input Cortex, 71, 359-367 DOI: 10.1016/j.cortex.2015.07.029






Links to Pieces About Momentous Events

Remembering Katrina inward the #BlackLivesMatter Movement yesteryear Tracey Ross

passing of the neat author too neurologist, Oliver Sacks. Oh, too Wes Craven merely died too...

I'm non blogging close whatsoever of these events. Many many others accept already written close them (see selected reading listing below). And has been feeling tapped out lately.

Hence the cats on treadmills. They're hither to innovate a novel written report which demonstrated that early on visual experience is non necessary for the perception of biological motion (Bottari et al., 2015). Biological motility perception involves the powerfulness to empathise too visually rail the crusade of a living being. This phenomenon is oftentimes studied using betoken low-cal displays, every bit shown below inward a demo from the BioMotion Lab. You should actually cheque out their ChR2 coming of age, editorial inward Nature Neuroscience

Optogenetics too the hereafter of neuroscience yesteryear Ed Boyden

Optogenetics: 10 years of microbial opsins inward neuroscience yesteryear Karl Deisseroth

Optogenetics: 10 years after ChR2 inward neurons—views from the community inward Nature Neuroscience

passing of the neat author too neurologist, Oliver Sacks. Oh, too Wes Craven merely died too...

I'm non blogging close whatsoever of these events. Many many others accept already written close them (see selected reading listing below). And has been feeling tapped out lately.

Hence the cats on treadmills. They're hither to innovate a novel written report which demonstrated that early on visual experience is non necessary for the perception of biological motion (Bottari et al., 2015). Biological motility perception involves the powerfulness to empathise too visually rail the crusade of a living being. This phenomenon is oftentimes studied using betoken low-cal displays, every bit shown below inward a demo from the BioMotion Lab. You should actually cheque out their Oliver Sacks, Neurologist Who Wrote About the Brain’s Quirks, Dies at 82, NY Times obituary

passing of the neat author too neurologist, Oliver Sacks. Oh, too Wes Craven merely died too...

I'm non blogging close whatsoever of these events. Many many others accept already written close them (see selected reading listing below). And has been feeling tapped out lately.

Hence the cats on treadmills. They're hither to innovate a novel written report which demonstrated that early on visual experience is non necessary for the perception of biological motion (Bottari et al., 2015). Biological motility perception involves the powerfulness to empathise too visually rail the crusade of a living being. This phenomenon is oftentimes studied using betoken low-cal displays, every bit shown below inward a demo from the BioMotion Lab. You should actually cheque out their My Own Life, Oliver Sacks on Learning He Has Terminal Cancer



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