We all concur that repeated blows to the caput are bad for the brain. What nosotros don't yet know is:
- who volition demo lasting cognitive too behavioral impairments
- who volition demo exactly transient sequelae (and for how long)
- who volition manifest long-term neurodegeneration
- ...and past times which specific cellular mechanism(s)
Adding to the confusion is the unclear terminology used to depict impact-related caput injuries. Is a impressive mega-paper past times neglected inwards previous studies)
- 22 yr old one-time American football game player
- history of iii concussions (one amongst loss of consciousness) at to the lowest degree vii years earlier death
- history of bipolar disorder too ii prior suicide attempts
- died past times suicide of unknown machinery (also neglected inwards previous studies, but nosotros don't know if asphyxiation was involved)
Fig. 1 (It's non concussions that campaign CTE. It's repeated hits), all of these changes accept been conflated amongst CTE, a neurodegenerative status that presumably develops over a longer fourth dimension scale. Overall, the declaration for a groovy too tidy causal cascade is inconclusive inwards humans (in my view), because hyperphosphoralated tau was non observed inwards whatsoever of the controls, including those amongst pregnant histories of concussion. Or inwards Cases ii too 3. Are nosotros to assume, then, that concussions arrive at non arrive at tauopathy inwards all cases? Is in that place a specific “dose” of caput comport upon required? The mouse model is to a greater extent than precise inwards this realm, too those results seemed to drive the credulous headlines.
Importantly, the authors acknowledge that “Clearly, non every private who sustains a caput injury, fifty-fifty if repeated, volition railroad train CTE encephalon pathology.” Conversely, CTE pathology tin tumble out without having suffered a unmarried blow to the caput (Gao et al., 2017).
Clearly, there's all the same a lot to learn.
Gao AF, Ramsay D, Twose R, Rogaeva E, Tator C, Hazrati LN. (2017). Chronic traumatic encephalopathy-like neuropathological findings without a history of trauma. Int J Pathol Clin Res. 3:050.
Sharp DJ, Jenkins PO. (2015). Concussion is confusing us all. Practical neurology 15(3):172-86.
Tagge CA, Fisher AM, Minaeva OV, Gaudreau-Balderrama A, Moncaster JA, Zhang XL, Wojnarowicz MW, Casey N, Lu H, Kokiko-Cochran ON, Saman S, Ericsson M, Onos KD, Veksler R, Senatorov VV Jr, Kondo A, Zhou XZ, Miry O, Vose LR, Gopaul KR, Upreti C, Nowinski CJ, Cantu RC, Alvarez VE, Hildebrandt AM, Franz ES, Konrad J, Hamilton JA, Hua N, Tripodis Y, Anderson AT, Howell GR, Kaufer D, Hall GF, Lu KP, Ransohoff RM, Cleveland RO, Kowall NW, Stein TD, Lamb BT, Huber BR, Moss WC, Friedman A, Stanton PK, McKee AC, Goldstein LE. (2018). Concussion, microvascular injury,and early on tauopathy inwards immature athletes afterwards comport upon caput injury too an comport upon concussion mouse model. Brain 141: 422-458.
Super Bowl Confetti Made Entirely From
Shredded Concussion Studies
A gift from The Onion
Head Affect Together With Hyperphosphoralated Tau Inward Teens
4/ 5Oleh Zeageat