This Calendar Week Inward Neuroblunders: Fmri Edition

My entire trunk of piece of work has been called into question!


And what a fine calendar week for technical neurogaffes it is. First was the threat that many trendy in addition to of import studies of neural circuits may need to survive replicated using old-fashioned lesion methods, because of “off-target” effects:
Where create nosotros acquire from here? Most acuate manipulation studies that occupation optogenetics confirm, in addition to then add together valuable back upward to, existing hypotheses that were established inwards before studies. But for those studies that convey proposed novel circuit functions, it may survive advisable to re-evaluate the conclusions using independent approaches.1


Up following nosotros have....

fMRI Neuroblunders inwards Brief
 
The nearly notable i of piece of cake is a novel newspaper past times Eklund et al. (2015), which demonstrated that mutual statistical tests used to analyze fMRI information tin give wildly inflated fake positive rates of upward to 60%, every bit illustrated inwards the top figure.

What they found is shocking”!
While voxel-wise fault rates were valid, nearly all cluster-based parametric methods (except for FSL’s FLAME 1) convey greatly inflated familywise Type I fault rates. This inflation was worst for analyses using lower cluster-forming thresholds (e.g. p=0.01) compared to higher thresholds, simply fifty-fifty alongside higher thresholds at that topographic point was serious inflation. This should survive a sobering wake-up telephone yell upward for fMRI researchers, every bit it suggests that the methods used inwards a large issue of previous publications endure from exceedingly high fake positive rates (sometimes greater than 50%).

The problems (and recommended solutions) were expertly discussed already past times Russ Poldrack, who is quoted inwards a higher house (see My entire trunk of piece of work has been called into question!
And what a fine calendar week for technical neurogaffes it is. First was Social Pain in addition to Physical Pain Are Not Interchangeable. This may audio obvious to you, simply Eisenberger in addition to Lieberman convey argued otherwise, alongside their neural warning stance of dACC function. Neurosynth uses text mining in addition to car learning to construct maps based on damage that seem inwards published papers, along alongside activation coordinates. So the map inwards a higher house doesn't distinguish betwixt unlike types of experimentally-induced physical hurting (heat, cold, pressure, etc.) vs. emotional hurting or social exclusion inwards a video game.

This mightiness survive i of L&E's major points, simply hurting researchers aren't on board; many don't fifty-fifty intend the dorsal posterior insula is a pain-specific region.


Footnotes

1 If anyone tin parse the bold red judgement that appears inwards the Nature commentary (immediately subsequently the showtime quoted passage inwards the post), delight permit me know.
In the future, it mightiness survive helpful e'er to correlate acuate in addition to chronic manipulations of specific neurons. If results from acuate in addition to chronic manipulations are discrepant, analyses of circuits that deed inwards parallel to the manipulated circuit, or of similar neurons that are activated past times unlike stimuli, mightiness survive to a greater extent than probable to supply an explanation for the discrepancy than essay out of chains of hierarchically connected neurons, because off-target effects in all likelihood propagate throughout neural circuits past times spilling over into adjacent, connected circuits.

2 Sam Schwarzkopf addressed this inwards his post, What is selectivity?


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